Exploiting L1 in the Young Learner Classroom: list of references

The following is a list of references I used when preparing my session.  I have provided a link to the source if it is available online.

I’m hoping to have some time soon to sit down and write a post about the presentation experience.  If you attended my session and have comments or questions, please email me (careymicaela@yahoo.com) or leave them here in the comments sections.

A special thank you to all those on social media and in the blogosphere who shared with me their opinions and experiences with using L1 in the classroom.  Every bit of it helped guide me in preparing my session.  Thanks!! 🙂


Atkinson, D. (1987). The mother tongue in the classroom: a neglected resource? ELT journal, 41(4).

Hall, G., & Cook, G. (2013). Own-language use in ELT : global practices and attitudes.London: British council.

Harbord, J. (1992, October ). The use of the mother tongue in the classroom. ELT Journal, 46/4 

Kerr, P. (2016) Questioning ‘English-only’ Classrooms: Own-language Use in ELT. Routledge Handbook of ELT (ed. Graham Hall, 2016)


Further reading:

Chambers, F. (1992) Promoting Use of the Target Language in the Classroom. Language Learning Journal. Volume 6

Howatt A.P.R. & Smith R. (2014, May) The History of Teaching English as a Foreign Language, from a British and European Perspective. Language and History. Volume 57. no. 1. 75-95

Taye Tsehayu, B. (2017) Current controversies on the use of L1 in ELT Classrooms: focus on Ethiopian context. The Warwick ETLZINE.


About careymicaela

I've been teaching Young Learners and Very Young Learners for over ten years now. My degrees are in Psychology and Spanish. I also completed my TEFL certification in Madrid and the Ih Young Learners Course in Seville. I enjoy working with children and sharing those experiences with other teachers. In my free time (when that exists!) I like to read, listen to music, practice yoga and go on long cycling routes.
This entry was posted in Conferences, Using L1, very young learners, Young Learners and tagged , , , , , , . Bookmark the permalink.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s