Teaching Tweens

I hadn’t taught tweens (ages 11-12) in quite a long time.  For about six years I had taught mostly very young learners ages 4 to 10.  It’s only a question of two years but in that time they change so much that it’s really a world of difference.  Due to scheduling, I added this age group to my courseload in September.  The transition has been challenging for me and at times rather difficult but extremely rewarding.

I started preparing for this class during the summer.  Or at least I tried to.  Having taught mostly the same age groups for so long, it was hard for me to anticipate what level of English the tweens would have, what their interests would be like and what sort of classroom management strategies I needed to implement.  I came up with an evaluation system concerning homework, classroom behavior and project work.  I also had a good look at the coursebook and used it to come up with a general syllabus.  I was able to get some aspects of the course prepared beforehand but I am the type of person who learns by doing so I couldn’t do anything more specific than that (as far as copying worksheets, coming up with lesson plans, etc) until I was actually in the classroom with these students.  I needed to be around them, watch them in action and see how they reacted to me before I could think about how to adapt the coursebook to their needs and interests.

On the first day I asked them to complete a questionnaire (see below), which had questions about how often they use the internet as well as what they do in their free time.  I used the questionnaire to get to know them a bit more as well as see how well they understood the questions and how they answered them.  We also did an ice-breaker activity in which I wrote three words related to my life on the board.  The students had to ask me questions in order to guess what these words meant to me.  We revised Wh- words beforehand and I encouraged them to use these words because I wanted to see how they did forming the questions as well as using them correctly.  I then asked students to write three words related to their own lives and ask each other questions while I monitored.  Next year I’m also going to ask them to write a paragraph about the information they learned from their partner. (The idea of getting the writing sample came from a post by Hada Litim on making the first day count.  Thank you Hada!).  I thought the first day went very well.  We got to know each other a bit more (two of them were my students before but as I mentioned before, they change so much in two years!) and we talked about the expectations for the course.

Photo Credit: Love.Sasha.Lynn via Compfight cc

Photo Credit: Love.Sasha.Lynn via Compfight cc

In the past three months there have been good days like that first day when the students were focused and participating well.  But there have been quite a few not so good days in which they’re completely distracted, chatting amongst themselves as if I weren’t even there and not participating in English.  It’s also a constant struggle to get them to complete homework and project assignments, even the most dedicated students.  At first I was really frustrated, believing that their behavior and lack of motivation were directly related to my teaching skills (or lack thereof) regarding this age group.  It was so much easier to manage my much larger class of twelve five year-olds than this small class of four twelve year-olds.

Despite my frustration, I’d like to think that I rose to the challenge (time and time again),  using different types of activities and topics to draw them in and motivate them.  I dedicated quite a disproportionate amount of time and effort to preparing the classes with this group (and I still do).  There were some days when they responded well to my efforts but other days that they seemed to be so lost in their own worlds that it was impossible to bring them back to the tasks we were working on in English class.

At first I was disappointed.  Disappointed with myself but also with them as students.  Since then I’ve come to realize (through talking to other teachers and reading online) that tweens are just a really awkward and challenging age group.  They are making the transition from being considered children to being adolescents.  This is a significant change in their lives and affects them in all types of ways: physically, hormonally, mentally and emotionally.  There are days when they are focused and ready to carry out the resonsibilities expected of them, but there are other days when any number of factors get in the way.  Sometimes they act like small children but then at other times they seem quite mature; it’s really difficult to plan and prepare lessons when you’re not really sure what age the students will be acting like that day.

As a teacher, I’m learning how to encourage and appreciate those days (or moments) when they’re fully engaged as well as how to ride out the storm during those moments when they seem to be out of reach.  As the school year marches on my disappointment is wearing off and my patience is growing stronger.  They’re going through a tough time in their lives full of changes and new responsiblities.  I try to keep this in mind when they exasperate me in class or when no one found time to finish the final project for the day it was due.  I remain hopeful that if I continue to set high yet achievable expectations they’ll get there in the end.

I’m not really sure where I was going with this post.  When I started writing I had other ideas in mind but it quickly turned into a rant so I just went with it.  Thank you for reading. Please share with me any advice you have on teaching tweens or any experiences you’ve had with this age group.

Teens A Welcome Questionnaire

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It’s Music to Their Ears

Music is a staple in the young learners’ classroom.  That’s my opinion at least.  Music is a huge part of my lessons, especially with very young learners.  In this post I’m going to explore why I use music so much and the variety of ways in which I put it into practice.  I hope you find something useful and if you have anything to share, please do so in the comments section.

Why use music with young learners?

There are many reasons to use songs in the classroom.  First and foremost, they’re fun!  Not all children react the same way to music: some dive right in and start moving to the beat while trying to sing along; others prefer to watch their classmates and listen.  Either way, they’re enjoying the music and participating.  Music grabs their attention and provides us with some really enjoyable moments in class.

Songs are also memorable.  It’s easier for young learners to remember the phrases we sang as part of a song than to try to recall the question we all asked each other in circle time.  Some songs have that catchy quality to them that make it impossible to get them out of your head.  That makes for a great song in the classroom.

Another reason to use songs is that they are made up of chunks of useful language.  It gives the children a context for the target language and the vocabulary we’re focusing on.  Singing a song (especially without the CD) can serve as a substitute for drilling those chunks of language that the teacher wants to practice.  The fact that it’s part of a song makes the process seem worthwhile to the young learners.

How can I use songs in the classroom?

You can use music at any stage of a lesson and for a variety of purposes.  I use songs with my younger learners (ages 4-7) every single day of class.  Below are some ideas on how to exploit songs to their fullest potential.

I generally use three phases when using songs with children and for a lack of better terms I’ll use the following: presentation, practice and production.  (I suppose the process is similar to the PPP method but that’s not really my intention).

I always learn the songs at home before presenting them in class.  I practice and practice until I can sing as well as mime the song without having to think about it too much.  This frees up my attention so that I can work on getting the children involved.

When I play a song for the first time, I always sing along and show the pupils the mimes we can use with the song.  Mimes are a crucial part of using music with young learners.  They help reinforce meaning as well as give the pupils an opportunity to move around and get rid of some of their energy.  I always encourage and never force pupils to participate.  As stated above, everyone responds differently to music.  Some need some time to organize the tune and the mimes in their heads before joining in.  Others may never participate as actively as the teacher would like but as long as they’re listening and observing, they’re making use of the song.

After we listen to a song, I like to sing it again without the CD and sort of break it down for them.  I guess it could be considered a controlled practice of the song.  We practice the chunks of language, the difficult sounds, the intonation and the tune.  We also discuss meaning and I rely heavily on mimes in expressing what the chunks and words mean.  I also sometimes use L1 if necessary because I want them to relate to and understand what they’re hearing.

Then we move on to a more free practice and we sing the song every chance we get, with and without the CD.  Sometimes when they’re working on a worksheet or in their books, I’ll start singing one of the class songs and they’ll join in.  It’s a great way to keep them focused but revise songs at the same time.  For more ideas on how to incorporate music into your lessons, see this page from Super Simple Learning.

I’ve included a production phase in this process but it may not always be possible, depending on your teaching situation.  In my classroom, I use my mobile to record videos of the children singing the songs and post them on glogster pages (if you do something similar, I’d recommend getting parents’ authorizations first).  I also invite the parents of the pre-schoolers to observe the last lesson of the trimester so they can have a glimpse of what we’re learning and how.  These forms of production seem to motivate the pupils and allow them to enjoy showing their parents and loved ones what they have learned.

How do you use music in your classroom and why?

Photo Credit: Smeerch via Compfight cc

Photo Credit: Smeerch via Compfight cc

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Using L1 with Young Learners

Should English teachers use the native language in class with young learners?

There is an ongoing debate surrounding this question.  It’s been going on for years and I’m sure the end of the discussion is nowhere in sight.  A google search on the ‘use of L1 with young learners’ will provide the reader with an ample source of arguments that go both ways.  I believe that each teacher needs to find their own answer to this question depending on their style of teaching, the needs of their young learners and the characteristics of their teaching situation.  For example, using L1 in the classroom would not be feasible if the pupils did not share the same the native language or if the teacher did not speak it.

Let me start off by saying that I do use the native language (in this case Spanish) in my classroom with my young learners, especially my very young learners (ages four and five).  I believe that there are instances when using their native language is beneficial to the pupils or their learning in some way.

Very young children are often nervous and sometimes scared the first few days of class.  They don’t know me but they’ve been left in the classroom with me and a bunch of other children that they may or may not know.  This can be overwhelming for a little one and getting them to feel comfortable requires a lot of compassionate smiles and hearty encouragement from the teacher.  This is when I believe L1 is a necessity.  These little ones need to know that the teacher understands them and can interact with them in their own language.  It makes them feel secure and helps to lower their affective filter.

I also use L1 when it comes to classroom management.  I’ve found that using just five minutes of class at the beginning of the school year to discuss why it’s better to take turns at speaking and raise your hand than having everyone talk at once works wonders throughout the rest of the course.  Young learners need to understand what the rules mean and why they should follow them.  The teacher can use L2 to demonstrate this meaning but I feel that L1 is more concise.  I would rather spend time practicing target language than trying to get them to understand the classroom rules in English.

Using the native language in the classroom can also help develop skills for independent learning.  Simple instructions such as ‘Read and match’ or ‘Listen and number’ can easily be explained and demonstrated in L2.  I sometimes use L1 to go a little deeper, asking them not only to color the number they see but also to say it in English in their heads while they’re coloring.  With pupils who are old enough to read and work with written texts, we talk about how to approach a new text, how to skim for a general understanding and then how to scan when searching for the answers to questions.  These are skills that they’ll take with them and hopefully use with even more profiency in the future.  All of this can be explained and demonstrated in L2 but, again, using L1 means that we spend less time on the instructions and more time on carrying them out.  On a side note, it’s important to remember that young learners have considerably less experience with tasks such as answering questions about a text than adults or teens do.  They’re only just beginning to understand the steps involved and the reasoning behind them.  I find that using L1 (at least during the first time we try a new type of task) is helpful because it’s one less complication they have to deal with.  Once they get the hang of how to do these types of tasks, using L2 to explain and discuss provides enrichment instead of a hindrance.

It may seem like I use quite a lot of the native language in my classroom.  I think this is true during the first couple weeks of class when we’re setting up routines and getting to know the course expectations.  As the school year goes on, however, I use progressively less L1 in the classroom.  Pupils gain a certain base of knowledge during those first couple weeks related to the meaning of instructions and rules.  Subsequently, they use my explanations in English coupled with the gestures and miming I always use in order to figure out what they should be doing.

Finding the right amount of L1 to use can be tricky.  The native language has its usefulness in the classroom but as teachers, we also need to be careful not to rely on it too heavily.  If the teacher always uses L1 to backup their explanations in English, pupils will inevitably tune out the version in L2 and wait for the translation.  The teacher needs to be aware of how much L1 is necessary and attempt to limit its use to that minimum.

Whether or not to use the native language in the classroom, when to use it and how to use it are all very personal choices that I believe each teacher needs to decide for themselves.  I use L1 at specific times during lessons and for specific reasons: to make little ones feel more secure, to save time and to delve a bit deeper into explanations of instructions and rules.  Using the right dose of the native language in the classroom can be an effective tool but it should not be used as a crutch.  It’s up to the teacher to find and implement the most favorable balance of L1 and L2 to suit their learners’ needs.

These are my views on using the native language with young learners.  Do you agree? Do you disagree?  How much or how little do you use L1 in your classroom?  Please share your thoughts in the comments section.  Thanks!

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Talk Time

In keeping with my resolutions for the new school year (see previous post), I’ve added a new daily activity to my pre-school classes.  I call it ‘Talk Time’ because I like alliteration and it’s simple enough for the little ones to say and remember.

We always start our classes in a circle so that we can see each other and interact as much as possible.  With ‘Talk Time’, the first five minutes or so of class are dedicated to whatever the children want to share with us.  For those familiar with the Responsive Classroom, it’s a concept similar to the ‘Morning Meeting’.  Each child has a turn to tell us anything they want: what they did during the weekend, any pets they may have, something funny a classmate said, etc.  In the two weeks we’ve used ‘Talk Time’, the children have only spoken in L1 but I respond to them in L2, sometimes asking them questions such as, ‘How do we say ‘abuelo’ in English?’  This allows us to revise vocabulary we’ve talked about before as well as put it into a real life context, making it more meaningful for them.

Photo Credit: Marc Wathieu via Compfight cc

Photo Credit: Marc Wathieu via Compfight cc

My decision to incorporate ‘Talk Time’ in our classes was based on a number of factors.   First off, and probably most importantly, children at ages four and five love to talk about themselves and share stories with everyone.  Coming to English class is a social hour for them more than anything; learning English is a by-product of what they’re really there for: to have fun!  Through the years, I’ve noticed that the beginning of class is always a bit of a struggle to get them focused on what we’re doing that day because all they really want to do is tell me about their new pet birds.  I realized that it might be a good idea to set aside a few minutes at the beginning of class to let them ‘vent’, as it were.  I was hoping that after having a chance to speak their mind, they’d be more interested and willing to concentrate on what I had planned for the day.

Another reason for establishing ‘Talk Time’ is to give pupils a chance to get to know each other.  At four and five years old, they’ve only just joined the program and don’t know their classmates very well at all.  During ‘Talk Time’ they give and receive personal information which could help them form bonds creating an environment in which they feel accepted as well as secure.  We’re setting a foundation of integration and trust for subsequent years of learning and interacting together.

‘Talk Time’ also requires children to practice certain social skills that will be useful to them later on.  We have discussed and I remind them (constantly at the moment) to ‘look and listen’, meaning that they should look at the person speaking and listen to what they have to say.  In this way, they’re practising the basic rules of conversation, i.e. turn-taking, making eye contact, showing interest by looking at the speaker, etc.

Photo Credit: avrene via Compfight cc

Photo Credit: avrene via Compfight cc

As I mentioned above, we’ve only used ‘Talk Time’ for two weeks but so far so good.  The pupils seem to enjoy it and afterward they appear to be more willing to focus on class.  I’ve also noticed that I have to remind them less and less to, ‘look and listen’ while their classmates are speaking.

Do you use a similar stage in your lessons?  Do you find it effective?  Please share your comments and ideas below.  Thanks for reading.

 

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Resolutions For the New School Year

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Photo Credit: Sarahnaut via Compfight cc

As we are on the brink of starting a new school year, I thought it best to reflect a bit on some things I’d like to change in my classroom.  I think it’s important to take notice of what’s working well versus what could be changed and set goals that I’d like to achieve.  What better time to do this than at the beginning of a fresh new year?

Mindfulness

I’ve practiced Mindfulness in my personal life for a couple of years now.  Inevitably, this has also spilled over into the time I spend in the classroom.  My goal this year is to consciously practice it more often and add it to the many tools I have in my teacher’s survival kit.  For more information on using Mindfulness in the classroom, read this article.

Listening skills

As teachers we’re normally focused on the students’ skills but this year I’d like to make an effort to improve my listening skills.  A lot of times I find myself asking for input or feedback from pupils but rushing them through what they want to say because of time constraints. I’m going to stop rushing them and really listen to what they have to say.  Even if that means we have to skip an activity I had planned or modify the plan in some way.  I want my pupils to be more vocal in class and I figure that listening more intently to what they have to say is a good place to start.  This resolution goes hand in hand with practicing more Mindfulness in the classroom.

Less is more

I always plan too many activities for one hour of class.  In some ways, it’s better to have too many activities planned than not enough but I’m one of those teachers that strives to ‘get through’ everything I planned for class.  This year I’m going to focus on the activities I believe to be the most useful and meaningful for the pupils.  I’m also going to manage our time better, allowing us to do these activities properly.  I’m hoping that this resolution will make lessons more memorable as well as more enjoyable for pupils.

Pairs and peers

I’ve often used pairwork in class but this year I’d like to do more with it.  Pairwork has many advantages: it give pupils more interaction with their peers helping to improve social skills, it helps to reduce TTT (Teacher Talking Time), it can be very useful in classrooms with mixed-abilities and it gives pupils a greater sense of control and responsibility for their learning.  For more advantages in using pairwork, see this article on the British Council Teaching English web page.

Along these same lines, I’d also like to start using more peer correction in class.  I teach mostly primary-age young learners; peer correction can be a complicated task for them but I don’t think it’s impossible.  As with any new skill they may have a tough time at first, especially in noticing mistakes that need to be corrected, but with some training I’m hopeful that they’ll show some progress.  My reasoning for including more peer correction is that pupils become ‘the experts’ when they peer correct.  It can make them feel more involved in the classroom and adds to their sense of community.  In the long run it can also make them more aware of their own mistakes as well as how to prevent them.

Synergy

‘Classroom Management Techniques’ by Jim Scrivener was on my summer reading list.  I haven’t finished it yet but so far I’ve found it to be a good mix of new (to me) ideas and techniques as well as a brushing up on concepts that I hadn’t really thought about in some time.  In his unit on ‘The Learners’, Scrivener describes synergy as, ‘the energy and achievement that comes when people combine their abilities and efforts to work together, seemingly achieving more than the sum of what all the individuals could achieve on their own.’  He then goes on to describe ways to encourage synergy which involve respect, value, trust and a focus on the task at hand as well as on the process needed to carry out the task.  This year I’m going to strive to promote synergy in my classes.  I like to believe that I’ve always encouraged pupils to respect and value each other but this year I plan to discuss how to do this (as well as how not to) on a regular basis with them.  I also plan to use more group/project activities, which are more conducive to developing synergy.

These are my resolutions for this school year.  As always, I’m being more ambitious than I probably should be, but I will make every effort to at least move in these directions with my pupils.  Mindfulness will help me appreciate the progress we’ve made without the unnecessary judgement that comes with not meeting every single goal.

What are your resolutions for the new school year?

 

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Activities Share

Question Chain

Age:  any

Materials: none

Procedure:  Choose a question- this can be a warm- up question or the target language you want to revise or practice.  Students can sit at their desks, stand in a circle or sit in a circle.  The teacher asks a student the target question, to which the student responds.  That student asks the next student the target language.  You can allow them to choose the person they want to ask or establish a pattern beforehand.  The question chain goes around the classroom and the last student asks the teacher.

 

 

The Dice Game

Age:  5 years old

Materials:  dice (a big fuzzy one if possible) and five flashcards

Procedure:  Put five flashcards face up on the board.  I usually do this activity with Zoo Animals but any vocabulary set can be used.  Elicit and drill the flashcards in order.  Turn the cards over but keep them in the same order and write the numbers 1-5 above or below the cards.  I usually ask for volunteers- ‘Who wants to go first?  Who’s next? etc’.  Each pupil comes up to roll the dice (softly tossing it on the floor) as we all chant, ‘Roll the dice!’  This keeps them all involved and focused on the activity at hand.  The child who rolled the dice then has to say what number he or she rolled and then try to remember which flashcard corresponded to that number.  We turn the card over to check if their answer is correct and then we turn the card back over again so that more pupils can have their turn.

 

 

I like ____. / I don’t like ____.

Age:   5 years old

Materials:  flashcards or drawings that represent ‘I like ___’ and ‘I don’t like ___’.

flashcards of food (or another vocabulary set)

Procedure:  Put the flashcard for ‘I like ___’ on one side of the board and ‘I don’t like ___’ on the other (or draw faces to represent those concepts).  A group of 5-6 students stands in a line in front of the board, facing it.  The teacher stands between the board and the line of students.  Show one of the flashcards of the food.  Students say the name of the food and then take one step to the left or one step to the right as they say, ‘I like _____ or I don’t like ______.’  We all say ‘in the middle!’ and they return to the line in the middle to start again.

Do you have any activities to share?

 

 

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Cycling As Teacher

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I’ve always been into sports and keeping physically fit so when my knee started to give out because of running, I was rather disappointed.  Running was my way of getting in some exercise while relieving stress at the same time.  It was what I normally did on a Saturday morning.  As I was trying to figure out what sort of sport I could take up instead of running, my husband stepped in and suggested I try cycling with him.  He’s been a cyclist for years and often goes on long, mountainous routes by himself.  Knowing what type of routes he usually did, the offer was a bit daunting but I decided to at least give it a whirl.  I am so happy that I did.  Cycling is hard, physically and psychologically.  It’s challenging on many different levels but the satisfaction it brings makes it well worth the effort.  I’ve been a cyclist for less than a year (around ten months) but it’s already taught me some pretty important lessons about myself and life in general.  I also began noticing some similarities between cycling and teaching.  I’d like to share them here.

Know where you’re going

In cycling, just as in teaching, you have to plan and prepare for the route you’re going to take.  You’ll need to know approximately how long it will take you to reach your goal as well as the different types of terrain you’ll meet along the way.  Cyclists use maps and apps to plan their routes; teachers use curriculum and syllabi to guide them.

Progress may not always be visible

It can be disheartening when you’re putting so much time and effort into something but not seeing the results you’d like to.  There will be days when you can see progress and other days when you can’t.  The idea is to keep your motivation levels high and stay on track.  The days when you notice that your legs are responding well, helping you climb that mountain and the days when your students truly begin using the target language correctly, more than make up for those days of frustrating bewilderment.

It’s challenging– or should be

Cycling and teaching should be stimulating and demanding.  If you’re getting bored, then something needs to be done.  You may need to up your game with more uphill climbs or longer distances.  In teaching this can translate to attempting activities or techniques that are more challenging for you and your students.  However you decide to do it, the important thing is not to fall into a comfortable rut.

Expect the unexpected

Cyclists as well as teachers need to be flexible and ready to deal with unforeseen events or even setbacks.  A cyclist should always have what’s needed to repair a flat, stave off temporary hunger, hydrate themselves and protect themselves from the elements.  You never know when you’ll run over a nail or when the weather will suddenly change.  Teachers ought to have their own ‘toolkits’ ready for emergencies: fast finisher activities, reinforcement activities for students who need a little extra support, lesson plans for a reduced number of students on those days when only one or two show up and even band-aids (plasters) for the little ones who need some attending to.  All of this requires thought, preparation and, quite frankly, experience.

Be ready to go the distance

In long-distance cycling and teaching, this is a marathon not a sprint.  Trying to accomplish too much in too little time can leave you (and your students) overwhelmed.  When climbing a steep ramp, control your pace.  You want to advance but at the same time be able to maintain your rhythm.  The same is true in teaching.  If you throw too many items at them at once or try to ‘get through’ too many activities in one lesson, you’ll only leave them confused.  Find a pace that you can manage but at the same time will help you reach your goal.  And yes, it’s easier said than done.

Taking up cycling was one of the best decisions I’ve ever made.  It’s challenging and sometimes frustrating but is gratifying at the same time.  Teaching shares these qualities and is also something I truly love to do.  I’ve really enjoyed being able to combine and compare the two here.  Please share your experiences with cycling and/or teaching.  Comments and feedback are always appreciated.

 

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Classroom Management

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Classroom Management is an essential part of any YL classroom but it takes many shapes and forms which vary from teacher to teacher.  Generally speaking, managing the classroom involves using organized systems to motivate students while keeping their behavior in check.  Rules and expectations help to create a safe environment that’s conducive to learning.  In my experience the key factor in good classroom management is being consistent; it is also the most difficult to carry out.   In the following post I will outline some of the techniques I use in my classes.  Every teacher has their own style but I hope you’ll find something useful or at least thought-provoking.

Pre-school

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In my classes with the four and five year-olds I use fish bowls to guide their behavior.  The first day of class we discuss ‘the rules of the classroom’.  We do this in L1 so that they can fully participate in the conversation and so that they know exactly what’s expected of them.  I try to keep the rules simple and logical: raise your hand to speak, sit properly, look at and listen to the teacher or to the student whose turn it is to speak and keep your hands to yourself.  We talk about how to behave well and why it’s important.  For example, it’s important to raise your hand if you want to say something because if we’re all talking at the same time no one will understand anything.  We even role-play some situations so they can see the difference between what they should and shouldn’t do.

I have two ‘fish bowls’ (they’re really just laminated cardboard).  One is a pretty blue with some marine life and the other is an ugly brown with a shark.  You can probably see where this is going.  I write the name of each child on a paper fish.  After we discuss the rules, the children color their fish and each one places their own fish in the blue fish bowl.  From then on, their fish reflects how they’re behaving in class.  If they don’t follow the rules, I place their fish in the other bowl with the shark.  If their behavior is disrupting the other students, I may also ask the child to sit apart from the rest of the class and think about how they can improve their behavior.  After a few minutes, I ask them if they’ll behave well and if they can return to the group.  I think this step is important because it’s showing them that their behavior is their own responsibility.

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Another management technique that I use with the pre-schoolers is the concept of ‘helpers’.  Each day two children are my helpers in class.  They hand out the worksheets and collect the folders when we’re finished.  We announce who the helpers are at the beginning of class and they put on their helper badges.  I encourage the other students to applaud in an attempt to create an environment in which we feel happy for other people.  Children at this age are very self-centered so it doesn’t always work but at the very least I’m setting a good example.

The helper turns serve as a sort of reward for good behavior.  At the end of class I talk with each student whose fish has been placed with the shark.  If their behavior has improved, I return their fish to the blue bowl.  If their behavior has not improved, their fish stays with the shark until the next class and they lose their next turn as helper.  They begin the next class with their fish in the shark bowl and must show improvement in order to return to the other bowl.  It’s difficult for pre-schoolers to think about long-term objectives or consequences because they’re very focused on the here and now.   However, this system appears to be effective because they really want to be one of the helpers.  They’re not very good at keeping track of when it’s their turn or if they’ve lost a turn, but they do know that they don’t want their fish to stay with the shark.  They soon realize that if they follow the rules, their fish will stay in the blue bowl.  And if for some reason their fish has to be placed with the shark (we all have our bad days), they know that better behavior will fix the situation.  My hope is that through this system the children are developing a sense of responsibility for their own actions as well as the notion that their behavior has consequences.

Primary grades 1 and 2

I use two main classroom management strategies with this age group.  The first strategy is a daily mark.  At the beginning of the school year we discuss the rules and how to follow them.  The rules are nicely summarized on a poster (see picture) that I put on the board during every class.  The students can look at it whenever they want to and I can refer to it if I feel they need to be reminded of anything.  Based on how well they fulfill these expectations, students earn a daily mark from 0 to 10.  I have an A4 size chart with their names and a square for each day of class.  I call each student up at the end of class to discuss the mark they earned for that day.  They write the number in their square.  This last step is important because once again they are seeing that their behavior has consequences and is their own responsibility.  It also helps students reflect on what they did well and what they should improve in the next class.  The key to this system is being consistent and fair, both of which can be extremely difficult sometimes.  The average of these daily marks is also included in the progress reports sent to parents.

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The other main strategy I use in these classes involves stickers.  We use Activity Books in our classes.  In order to track their progress, making it visible to them as well as to me, I started putting a sticker on the front page whenever they correctly completed all the pages in a unit. When I correct their work, I draw a smiley face if everything on the page is correct.  If I notice a mistake, I underline it or circle it in order to draw their attention to it.  When they have corrected the mistakes on the page, I draw the smiley.  When all the pages in a unit have a smiley, they earn a sticker which goes on the front of the book to show how many units they’ve finished.  It is especially difficult for the children in first grade but with this system I try to promote revision and self-correction.  Little by little they begin to understand the concept of going back to correct their work and why it’s important.

Primary grades 3 and 4

I also use a daily mark and stickers with these age groups but in slightly different ways.

The expectations for these students are similar to the first and second graders but they also include homework and remembering to bring their books (the younger students leave their books in the classroom).  We discuss the rules at the beginning of the school year and I put the poster on the board every day so that we can refer to it if necessary (see picture).

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The main difference with this age group is that I write the marks they’ve earned on the chart mostly because of time limitations.  In order for them to see how they are progressing, I sometimes show them a summary of their marks and the average is also included in the progress report at the end of the trimester.

I use the same system of smiley faces and stickers on the front of their Activity Books to track their progress.  Students at this age tend to have a better understanding of why revision and self-correction are important.  I also keep track of whether students finish homework tasks for the day they were assigned or not.  As an incentive to complete homework on time, those students that finished all tasks for the days they were due can choose one of the bigger stickers as a reward.

Conclusion

Classroom Management is an integral part of teaching young learners.  They need to know what is expected of them and how to meet those expectations.  Motivation is also key at this age because young learners often do not understand why learning English is important.  Relying on elements of extrinsic motivation such as fish bowls and stickers helps create a sense of purpose as well as track the progress of younger students.  It’s important for a teacher to find and implement strategies that work for them and their students.

I enjoyed writing this post because it has helped me to reflect on the management techniques I use in my classroom.  I think there are some strong points to the systems I use but there are also ways I could improve them.  For example, the students in third and fourth grade don’t write their daily mark on the chart in order to save time in class but after writing this post I’m beginning to consider changing that next year so that they have a better sense of how they are progressing.

Please share your experiences with Classroom Management here.  Thanks for reading.

 

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Presenting Vocabulary to Very Young Learners

Presenting new vocabulary to young learners can be complicated because you need to get their attention, keep their attention and encourage them to participate in activities such as drilling. The routines I use in presenting new words to my students depend on their age group.

flashcards

Four and five-year olds

With this age group I use a cloth bag to introduce new words. They seem to enjoy this element of surprise and suspense. When it’s time to present the new vocabulary, I take out the bag and we say our chant, ‘Shake, shake, shake the bag, shake the bag with me. Shake, shake, shake the bag, shake the bag with me. Shake, shake, shake!’ The children like the routine aspect of always beginning with the same chant because they know what to expect and pretty soon they lead the singing of the chant, making the experience more learner-centered.

Before I take the flashcards out of the bag, I try to talk a bit about the topic we’re going to see. I also try to use the target language they’ll later be hearing and using. For example, if the topic is food, I would say, ‘I’m hungry. I want some food!’ as I mime being hungry. Then I would ask them if they were hungry. They always are! So we would mime and say, ‘I’m hungry!’.

After setting the scene, I slowly reveal the first flashcard. I let them see it and they usually say what it is in L1. For a number of years, I didn’t want them to say the words in L1 but I think this step is useful in that the meaning of what the flashcard represents is made clear to all of them. I then mime and say the word in English a number of times, letting the sounds fall on their ears. I encourage them to mime and say the word with me a couple of times. Miming as they repeat the word means they’re using TPR in acquiring the meaning. We then do what I call an increasing drill. We start with our hands low and say the word softly. Each time we raise our hands and the volume of our voices until finally we’re saying the word loudly (but no shouting, please!) and our hands are raised up above our hands. It’s a fun way to get them to repeat the target words three or four times in a row.

We then begin drilling individually. The children are sitting in a circle (or rather a U shape) so it’s easy to show each one the flashcard and have them repeat the word after me. I try to get them to focus on the shape of my mouth and how I make the sounds. At this age they’re very good at picking up on those cues and using them to repeat the word correctly.

When we finish drilling, we do a recognition activity. I put the flashcards on the floor in the middle or on the board. I then go around counting one, two, three as I touch their heads. The fourth child stands up to touch the flashcard for the word I say. I repeat the process until each child has gone to touch a flashcard. This activity serves to reinforce meaning and also helps them focus on each vocabulary item separately.

After the recognition activity we move on to a production activity. I mix the flashcards as I say, ‘shuffle, shuffle, shuffle…’ until one of the children says, ‘stop!’. They then raise their hands in order to try to guess the flashcard facing me. I encourage them to use a complete question, ‘Is it…?’. Even after all the repetition and all the times we’ve seen and heard the words on the flashcards, they will probably have trouble remembering what they have to choose from when guessing. That’s why I usually say the words when I see they need help. I always say the words in the same order and with a certain rhythm so that it becomes a chant that some of the children will invariably start saying with me. We play a few times so that each child has a chance to participate.

Presenting vocabulary to preschoolers needs to be fun, well-paced and involve quite a bit of moving around. I usually follow the above procedure every time I introduce new words to my students. Since the only aspect that changes is the target group of words, the children know what to expect at every stage. This helps to lower their affective filters, letting them focus on learning.

Six and seven-year olds

Flashcards coming out of the bag don’t usually excite this age group as much as the younger ones, so I use other strategies with them. Normally I try to think of a way to present the target words as part of the larger topic they’re associated with. To use the example of food from above, I would draw a large plate or a fridge on the board. After we look at and drill each flashcard, I place them on the plate or in the fridge. I also try to use the target language they will later be hearing and using: ‘I like sausages. Yum! They’re delicious!’ or ‘I don’t like peas.’

By this age, they’ve had some experience with English outside our classroom so I try to elicit more than present the words to them. I show the flashcard and ask for suggestions in English. I praise all attempts and we all repeat together the target word and do a related mime. Miming is just as important at this age because it helps them internalize the meaning of the words. We normally do an increasing drill (see above) but I don’t usually do the individual drilling with this age group unless the word is particularly difficult to pronounce.

Once all the flashcards are on the board (or sometimes on the floor in the middle), we do a disappearing drill. I place all the flashcards in a row and we say them together. Then I turn one of the flashcards over saying, ‘bye bye ____’. We say the row of flashcards together again but I only say the ones facing up. They have to remember and say the ones facing down. We continue like this until all the flashcards are facing down. The tension mounts as we say goodbye to each card and they always get really excited, sometimes telling me which card to turn over. At the very end, they tell me the target word for each card and I turn it over to make sure they’re correct. Most of the time they are!

Next I leave the flashcards on the board and pick up the word cards. This age group is starting to read and write more in English, so we look at each word, read it aloud together, make comments about the way it’s written or sounds and then match it to the corresponding flashcard. I might call to their attention the ‘ph’ in elephant or ask how many ‘b’s are in rabbit. This helps them focus on the written form and sometimes leads to discussions about why English is not written the way it sounds. At this stage we also take our invisible pencils and write the words. I encourage them to write in the air as they are looking at the word card. I think this visualization helps prepare them for later writing and it’s fun!

Using the word cards we then do a silent mime. I show the word, they silently mime what it means and then I ask them to say the word. Effectively, they are reading and showing recognition through movement. It also gives them all time to read and respond before the answer is actually said aloud. Students who need more time to think benefit a great deal from these few extra seconds.

Presenting vocabulary to six and seven-year olds requires flexibility, movement and an element of fun. Reading and writing are two skills that are starting to become important to them so they should be incoporated into the presenting of new words.

These are the routines I use in my classroom when presenting new vocabulary. Please share with us your routines and activities.

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Things That Make Me Smile

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Teaching is full of ups and downs: good days and bad days, activities that go exactly as you’d hoped and others that are just plain disaster, students that are motivated and others that couldn’t care less, parents that understand and others that never will… There are days when I wonder why I put so much time and effort into what I do when students don’t seem to care much and parents only want to complain about something.  But there are other days (thankfully!) that completely offset those days of frustration. Sometimes it only takes just one fleeting moment to restore the balance in my teaching universe. The following is a list of things that make me smile and remind me why I do what I do:

–a six-year-old student who hugs me and tells me, ‘I love you!’ in English (there are a few in that class that do this daily!)
–hugs and more hugs from my little ones: they’re showing me that they value me and trust me
–when one of the four-year-olds gets impatient because the other students in front of him are taking too long and he says, ‘Let’s go!’ spontaneously in English
–students who try to ask me questions or tell me something in English without me having to remind them: young learners often don’t see the point in using English when they don’t have to so it’s nice to see them motivated
–when a student offers to help another student: I try to stress collaboration in the classroom and small gestures like this one really make my day
–when a student corrects another in a tactful and helpful way: certainly a special feat for young learners
–a student who normally hands in homework assignments and projects late if at all suddenly has three assignments ready to hand in
–while waiting in the playground before class, watching the five-year-olds invent and organize some sort of ball game: children’s creativity and social skills will never cease to amaze me

Reflection is an important part of teaching. It’s helpful to think back on a class and consider what went well, what needs to be changed and what we should never attempt again. I think we should also include those moments that make us smile. Those are the moments that keep the ups and down in check and make it all worthwhile.

Please share the things that make you smile with the rest of us.

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